External Costs of Transport - Accident, Environmental and Congestion Costs of Transport in Western Europe
The objective of the INFRAS/IWW study was to improve awareness of the environmental impact of transport activities and to quantify this impact in socio-economic terms. This new evaluation of the external costs of transport provides transport policy makers with a more precise and reliable tool for better integrating the objectives of environmental protection and sustainable development. The study evaluates the external costs (i.e. the cost borne by society) of accidents, air pollution, risks linked to climate change, noise, congestion and a series of other environmental effects for 17 European countries (EU 15, Switzerland and Norway). All transport modes are taken into account: the road sector (private cars, motorbikes, coaches, commercial and heavy goods vehicles), the rail sector (passengers and freight), the aviation sector (passengers and freight) and waterways (freight).
Also available in French and German 304 pages, 2-7461-0184-X